Melasma is a chronic skin condition characterized by symmetrical, blotchy, and brownish facial pigmentation. It usually occurs in mature, healthy, and non-pregnant individuals in the form of large brown patches and freckle-like spots with irregular border on both sides of the face. Usually, forehead, cheeks, nose, and upper lips are affected.

The causes of melasma appear quite complex since multiple factors are involved. Genetic predisposition, sun exposure and sun damage, hormonal treatments (e.g. oral contraceptive pills, hormone replacement, intrauterine devices), hypothyroidism (low levels of the circulating thyroid hormone), certain products (e.g. cosmetics, scented or deodorant soaps) and medications are all agents that can possibly trigger the occurrence of melasma.

Topical therapies are quite common for treating melasma because these medications help to prevent formation of new pigmentation via inhibiting the formation of melanin. The common treatment options include topical preparation of Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Hydroquinone, topical retinoids, Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), Azelaic acid that can be used as a combination or standalone treatment.



Acne is a common chronic skin condition which affects the pilosebaceous unit (hair follicles and sebaceous gland) due to its blockage and subsequent inflammation. It affects both males and females, and is most prevalent during adolescence and young adulthood stages. Acne can occur due to various factors including immune and inflammatory response, hormonal impact, bacterial disbalance, and mechanical occlusion of hair follicles. Acne is found on face, chest, and back in the form of inflammatory papules and pustules, open and closed comedones ( black- and white- heads). Acne is usually classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Acne treatment is quite complex and often includes usage of topical treatments, such as benzoyl peroxide, topical retinoids, and salicylic acid.



Rosacea is a chronic skin rash which occurs on the central part of the face in patients between 30 and 60 years old. It appears in the form of red spots (papules) and pustules that are dome-shaped. No whiteheads, nodules, and/or blackheads are present. Depending on the type of rosacea, swelling (phymatous rosacea) and scaling (rosacea dermatitis) can also be present on affected areas. Rosacea can be caused by multiple factors, such as genetic, environmental, vascular, and inflammatory. Patients diagnosed with rosacea experience blushing and/or flushing on daily basis. These red papules and pustules often appear on areas of forehead, nose, cheeks, and chin. Moreover, hot and spicy food and drinks as well as sun exposure can contribute to redness. The treatment options for rosacea are unique for every patient, but usually involve usage of various antibiotics and topical treatments that tend to reduce redness.



Skin undergoes a lot of significant changes following various medical and cosmetic procedures (i.e. laser therapy, chemical peels, intense pulse light procedures). Very often it loses its natural protective properties and becomes dehydrated. Skin repair and recovery processes are often supported with special post-procedure skin care that stimulates the natural healing process. For example, these products restore skin’s protective barrier, replenish natural elements, and add epidermal lipids.